His third wife was Cloelia, whom Sulla divorced due to sterility. Sulla was closely associated with Venus,[9] adopting the title Epaphroditos meaning favored of Aphrodite/Venus.[10]. [109] When Flaccus' consular army marched through Macedonia towards Thrace, his command was usurped by his legate Gaius Flavius Fimbria, who had Flaccus killed before chasing Mithridates with his army into Asia itself. Sulla marched to Praeneste and forced its siege to a close, with the younger Marius dead from suicide before its surrender. Categories . Taking Action: Benefits for students that extend beyond the classroom. This unusual appointment (used hitherto only in times of extreme danger to the city, such as during the Second Punic War, and then only for 6-month periods) represented an exception to Rome's policy of not giving total power to a single individual. At the meeting, he took the seat between the Parthian ambassador, Orobazus, and Ariobarzanes, seeking to gain psychological advantage over the Partian envoy by portraying the Parthians and the Cappadocians as equals with Rome as superior. La riunione periodica sulla sicurezza e la salute dei lavoratori deve essere convocata dal datore di lavoro e devono partecipare almeno il rappresentante dei lavoratori per la sicurezza (RLS) e il medico competente. In the natural and social sciences, primary sources are often empirical studies . The Steamboat Adventure. Mithridates was to give Asia and Paphlagonia back to Rome. [58] At the start of the war, there were largely two theatres: a northern theatre from Picenum to the Fucine Lake and a southern theatre including Samnium. Sulla then settled affairs "reparations, rewards, administrative and financial arrangements for the future" in Asia, staying there until 84BC. under Gaius Marius in the wars against the Numidian rebel Jugurtha. The collection is particularly strong in the subject areas of education, psychology, American history, sociology, religion, and science and technology. And for his consular colleague, he attempted to transfer to him the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo's army. Primary Source 10. At the same time, the younger Marius sent word to assemble the Senate and purge it of suspected Sullan sympathisers: the urban praetor Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus then had four prominent men killed at the ensuing meeting. N.S. [91], During close of the Social War, in 89BC, Mithridates VI Eupator of Pontus invaded Roman Asia. [81] He sent his army back to Capua[82] and then conducted the elections for that year, which yielded a resounding rejection of him and his allies. [104], After the Battle of Chaeronea, Sulla learnt that Cinna's government had sent Lucius Valerius Flaccus to take over his command. "[148][149] Sulla's example proved that it could be done, therefore inspiring others to attempt it; in this respect, he has been seen as another step in the Republic's fall. [155] Plutarch notes that Sulla considered that "his golden head of hair gave him a singular appearance. [31] Ultimately, the Numidians were defeated in 106BC, due in large part to Sulla's initiative in capturing the Numidian king. [59] Sulla served as one of the legates in the southern theatre assigned to consul Lucius Julius Caesar. J. . "[156], He was said to have a duality between being charming, easily approachable, and able to joke and cavort with the most simple of people, while also assuming a stern demeanor when he was leading armies and as dictator. Sulla, himself a patrician, thus ineligible for election to the office of Plebeian Tribune, thoroughly disliked the office. Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (/ s l /; 138-78 BC), commonly known as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.He won the first large-scale civil war in Roman history and became the first man of the Republic to seize power through force.. Sulla had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship.A gifted and innovative general, he achieved . A list of useful online sources for reading about Rome at the time of Sulla Bill Thayer's LacusCurtius - Includes maps of the Roman world, texts of several primary sources, and William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. [41] After the failure of negotiations, the Romans and Cimbri engaged in the Battle of the Raudian Field in which the Cimbri were routed and destroyed. The faculty and students of the Hanover College History Department initiated the Hanover Historical Texts Project in 1995, at a time when few primary sources were available outside of published anthologies. Revised on November 11, 2022. Primary sources are original . [59] Sulla attempted also to assist Lucius' relief of the city of Aesernia, which was under siege, but both men were unsuccessful. A gifted and innovative general, he achieved numerous successes in wars against foreign and domestic opponents. Faced with mobilizing a sufficient fighting force, Congress passed the Selective Service Act on May 18, 1917. [57], The same year, Bocchus paid for the erection of a statue depicting Sulla's capture of Jugurtha. His descendants among the Cornelii Sullae would hold four consulships during the imperial period: Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 5 BC, Faustus Cornelius Sulla in AD 31, Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix in AD 33, and Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix in 52 AD (he was the son of the consul of 31, and the husband of Claudia Antonia, daughter of the emperor Claudius). To this end, he reaffirmed the requirement that any individual wait for 10 years before being re-elected to any office. [61] But after Cato's death in battle with the Marsi,[62] Sulla was prorogued pro consule and placed in supreme command of the southern theatre. He was to return the kingdoms of Bithynia and Cappadocia to Nicomedes and Ariobarzanes, respectively. Primary sources are first-hand evidence related to the time or event you are investigating.This includes accounts by participants or observers and a wide range of written, physical, audio or visual materials created at the time or later by someone with direct experience.. Family members of the proscribed were not excluded from punishment, and slaves were not excluded from rewards. His enemy, Lucius Cornelius Cinna, was elected consul for 87BC in place of his candidate;[83] his nephew was rejected as plebeian tribune while Marius' nephew was successful. 107/14 The dissolute lifestyle of L.Sulla, as a young man. The young Gaius Julius Caesar, as Cinna's son-in-law, became one of Sulla's targets, and fled the city. Normally, candidates had to have first served for ten years in the military, but by Sulla's time, this had been superseded by an age requirement. When he was still a proconsul in 82, he planned and executed the proscriptions against his enemies for revenge, especially from the Marian camp, and against rich Romans because he needed money to pay his veterans . From this distance, Sulla remained out of the day-to-day political activities in Rome, intervening only a few times when his policies were involved (e.g. Sulla then established a system where all consuls and praetors served in Rome during their year in office, and then commanded a provincial army as a governor for the year after they left office. [122] Marius, buttressed by Samnite support, fought a long and hard battle with Sulla at Sacriportus that resulted in defeat when five of his cohorts defected. He then sailed for Italy at the head of 1,200 ships. Gaius Sallustius Crispus (Sallust) was born Amiternum in the country of the Sabines in 86 BC. However, this material may be located in a number of places including in the library, elsewhere on campus, or even online. The bubonic plague was the most commonly seen form during the Black Death, with a mortality rate of 30-75% and symptoms including fever of 38 - 41 C (101-105 F), headaches, painful aching joints, nausea and vomiting, and a general feeling of malaise. Shortly before Sulla's first consulship, the Romans fought the bloody Social War against their . [18] Lacking ready money, Sulla spent his youth among Romes comedians, actors, lute players, and dancers. [141][140][142][143][144] Accounts were also written that he had an infestation of worms, caused by the ulcers, which led to his death. You can use the following terms to search HOLLIS for primary sources:. Sulla played an important role in the long political struggle between the optimates and populares factions at Rome. [85], After the elections, Sulla forced the consuls designate to swear to uphold his laws. He married again, with a woman called Aelia, of which nothing is known other than her name. Sulla raised important cavalry forces for Marius and was responsible for the . Lucius Cornelius Sulla was born in 138 BCE in Puteoli, Italy. Updated on June 22, 2022 Students. Introduction. Primary Sources are immediate, first-hand accounts of a topic, from people who had a direct connection with it. [38] The next year, Sulla was elected military tribune and served under Marius,[39] and assigned to treat with the Marsi, part of the Germanic invaders, he was able to negotiate their defection from the Cimbri and Teutones. At the same time, Marius had annihilated the Cimbri's allies, the Teutones, at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae. [76] The troops were willing to follow Sulla to Rome; his officers, however, realised Sulla's plans and deserted him (except his quaestor and kinsman, almost certainly Lucius Licinius Lucullus). Marius arranged for Sulla to lift the iustitium and allow Sulpicius to bring proposals; Sulla, in a "desperately weak position [received] little in return[,] perhaps no more than a promise that Sulla's life would be safe". Primary sources in history are often created by people who witnessed, participated in, or were otherwise close to a particular event. Throughout the research process, you'll likely use various types of sources. Primary Sources on the Web: Finding, Evaluating, Using. [6] He also disbanded his legions and, through these gestures, attempted to show the re-establishment of normal consular government. 134/4 C.Marius spends his early life in the countryside near Arpinum. He dismissed his lictores and walked unguarded in the Forum, offering to give account of his actions to any citizen. [95], Mithridates' successes against the Romans incited a revolt by the Athenians against Roman rule. Encyclopedias. [128], After the battle at the Colline Gate, Sulla summoned the Senate to the temple of Bellona at the Campus Martius. History has portrayed them as being emblematic for a generation of chaos in Roman society. [106] Roman forces then surrounded the Pontic camp. Life dates 138 BC-78 BC. Marius and Sulla are very curious figures in the late Roman Republic. Archives; Correspondence [92] In the summer of 88, he reorganised the administration of the area before unsuccessfully besieging Rhodes. Or he could attempt to reverse it and regain his command. [125], Carbo, who had suffered defeats by Metellus Pius and Pompey, attempted to redeploy so to relieve his co-consul Marius at Praeneste. Weekly Newspaper Articles as Primary Sources. 1963), and Stewart Perowne, Death of the Roman Republic: From 146 B.C. In fact, many sources can be either primary or secondary depending on the context of the research and of the source itself. 213/23 P.Cornelius Sulla is chosen to be Flamen Dialis. [113], Sulla crossed the Adriatic for Brundisium in spring of 83BC with five legions of Mithridatic veterans, capturing Brundisium without a fight. The Acropolis was then besieged. During these times on the stage, after initially only singing, he started writing plays, Atellan farces, a kind of crude comedy. [26] Sulla was assigned by lot to his staff. 1011 accepts these inheritances without much comment and places them around Sulla's turning thirty years of age. [17], One story, "as false as it is charming", relates that when Sulla was a baby, his nurse was carrying him around the streets, until a strange woman walked up to her and said, "Puer tibi et reipublicae tuae felix", which can be translated as, "The boy will be a source of luck to you and your state". 45-120 CE) was a Platonist philosopher, best known to the general public as author of his "Parallel Lives" of paired Greek and Roman statesmen and military leaders.He was a voluminous writer, author also of a collection of "Moralia" or "Ethical Essays," mostly in dialogue format, many of them devoted to philosophical topics, not at all . If the latter, he may have married into the Julii Caesares. In art, literature, and cultural studies, primary sources . porterville unified school district human resources; Tags . [112] However, this and Sulla's delay in Asia are "not enough to absolve him of the charge of being more concerned with revenge on opponents in Italy than with Mithridates". sulla primary sources. Mithridates also would equip Sulla with seventy or eighty ships and pay a war indemnity of two or three thousand talents. He became a tribune of the plebeians in 52 BC where he gained a reputation for being a strong supporter of the populares. The proscriptions are widely perceived as a response to similar killings that Marius and Cinna had implemented while they controlled the Republic during Sulla's absence. Sulla is generally seen as having set the precedent for Caesar's march on Rome and dictatorship. [33] Winning Bocchus' friendship and making plain Rome's demands for Jugurtha's deliverance, Sulla successfully concluded negotiations and secured Bocchus' capture of Jugurtha and the king's rendition to Marius' camp. Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo, merely an ex-aedile and one of Sulla's long-time enemies, had contested the top magistracy. Jugurtha had fled to his father-in-law, King Bocchus I of Mauretania (a nearby kingdom); Marius invaded Mauretania, and after a pitched battle in which both Sulla and Marius played important roles in securing victory, Bocchus felt forced by Roman arms to betray Jugurtha. For example: scholarly or popular books and articles, reference books, biographies, or textbooks. [114], The general feeling in Italy, however, was decidedly anti-Sullan; many people feared Sulla's wrath and still held memories of his extremely unpopular occupation of Rome during his consulship. [127] In the north at the same time, Norbanus was defeated and fled for Rhodes, where he eventually committed suicide. . Textbook passages discussing specific concepts, events, and experiments. Books. [30] Sulla was popular with the men, charming and benign, he built up a healthy rapport while also winning popularity with other officers, including Marius. He then fought successfully against Germanic tribes during the Cimbrian War, and Italian allies during the Social War. Biographies of historical and famous people. Scipio's men quickly abandoned him for Sulla; finding him almost alone in his camp, Sulla tried again to persuade Scipio to defect. Websites. [96] Rome unsuccessfully defended Delos from an joint invasion by Athens and Pontus. Marius, an Italian by birth rather than a pure Roman, was a relative newcomer to the Roman elite, and he was considered an outsider by the Senate fathers. Secondary sources are interpretations of history. [107], In the aftermath of the battle, Sulla was approached by Archelaus for terms. National Archives Catalog Find online primary source materials for classroom & student projects from the National Archive's online catalog (OPA). His son, Faustus Cornelius Sulla, issued denarii bearing the name of the dictator,[151] as did a grandson, Quintus Pompeius Rufus. Keep in mind as you use this website, the Web is always changing and evolving. Continuing towards Scipio's position at Teanum Sidicinum, Sulla negotiated and was almost able to convince Scipio to defect. He used his powers to purge his opponents, and reform Roman constitutional laws, to restore the primacy of the Senate and limit the power of the tribunes of the plebs. If Sulla had married one of the Julii Caesares, this could explain Marius' willingness to entrust such an important task to a young man with no military experience, as Marius too had married into that family. He then attacked the Samnites and routed one of their armies near Aesernia before capturing the new Italian capital at Bovianum Undecimanorum. Marius, in the midst of this military crisis, sought and won repeated consulships, which upset aristocrats in the Senate; they, however, likely acknowledged the indispensability of Marius' military capabilities in defeating the Germanic invaders. At the same time, Mithridates attempted to force a land battle in northern Greece, and dispatched a large army across the Hellespont. [126] Sulla's specific movements are very vaguely described in Appian, but he was successful in preventing the Italians from relieving Praeneste or joining with Carbo. He declined battle with Pontus at the hill Philoboetus near Chaeronea before manoeuvring to capture higher ground and build earthworks. Sulla then prohibited ex-tribunes from ever holding any other office, so ambitious individuals would no longer seek election to the tribunate, since such an election would end their political career. Publius Cornelius Rufinus, one of Sulla's ancestors and also the last member of his family to be consul, was banished from the Senate after having been caught possessing more than 10 pounds of silver plate. He then reinforced this decision by legislation, retroactively justifying his illegal march on the city and stripping the twelve outlaws of their Roman citizenship. He hinted to them that Marius would find other men to fight Mithridates, forcing them to give up opportunities to plunder the East, claims which were "surely false". Pompey ambushed eight legions sent to relieve Praeneste but an uprising from the Samnites and the Lucanians forced Sulla to deploy south as they moved also to relieve Praeneste or join with Carbo in the north. It was not until he was in his very late forties and almost past the age . Hind 1992, p.150 dismisses claims in Plutarch and Vellius Paterclus of Athens being forced to cooperate with Mithridates as "very hollow" and "apologia". was a major figure in the late Roman Republic. The two greatest of these were Gaius Marius and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Due to his meeting the minimum age requirement of thirty, he stood for the quaestorship in 108BC. In this first video of a 2-part tutorial, we will discuss primary sources. Negotiations broke down after one of Scipio's lieutenants seized a town held by Sulla in violation of a ceasefire. Wikipedia entry + Cornelius , Epaphroditus , Sylla 138/31 The birth of L.Sulla. [40], In 102BC, the invaders returned and moved to force the Alps. There, Sulla attacked him in an indecisive battle. In an harangue to the people, he said, with reference to these measures, that he had proscribed all he could think of, and as to those who now escaped his memory, he would proscribe them at some future time. Examples of tertiary sources include encyclopedias and dictionaries, chronologies, almanacs, directories, indexes, and bibliographies. Sulla had his enemies declared hostes, probably from outside the pomerium, and after assembling an assembly where he apologised for the ongoing war, left to fight Carbo in Etruria. Primary Sources Sallust. Beyond personal enmity, Caesar Strabo may also have stood for office because it was evident that Rome's relations with the Pontic king, Mithridates VI Eupator, were deteriorating and that the consuls of 88 would be assigned an extremely lucrative and glorious command against Pontus. Primary sources are "first-hand" information, sources as close as possible to the origin of the information or idea under study. Sulla, who opposed the Gracchian popularis reforms, was an optimate; though his coming to the side of the traditional Senate originally could be described as atavistic when dealing with the tribunate and legislative bodies, while more visionary when reforming the court system, governorships, and membership of the Senate. Sulla can be seen as setting the precedent for Julius Caesar's dictatorship, and for the eventual end of the Republic under Augustus. Scipio's army blamed him for the breakdown in negotiations and made it clear to the consul that they would not fight Sulla, who at this point appeared the peacemaker. The historian Sallust fleshes out this character sketch of Sulla: He was well versed both in Greek and Roman literature, and had a truly remarkable mind. [97], Early in 87BC, Sulla transited the Adriatic for Thessaly with his five legions. Student Engagement: Primary source materials "help spark students . After some days, both sides engaged in battle. onwards. He might have been disinherited, though it was "more likely" that his father simply had nothing to bequeath. [78], When the march on Rome started, the Senate and people were appalled. Capturing the city, Sulla had it destroyed. Marius, elected again to the consulship of 101, came to Catulus' aid; Sulla, in charge of supporting army provisioning, did so competently and was able to feed both armies. He had one child from this union, before his first wife's death. By the end of the war, the SSA had conscripted over 2.8 million American men. to A.D. 68 (1959; 2d ed. Almost breaking before Marius' makeshift forces, Sulla then stationed troops all over the city before summoning the Senate and inducing it to outlaw Marius, Marius' son, Sulpicius, and nine others. The law was vetoed by one of the tribunes, but when Quintus Pompeius Rufus went to Pompey Strabo's army to take command under the Senate's authority, he was promptly assassinated after his arrival and assumption of command, almost certainly on Strabo's orders. They are now largely lost, although fragments from them exist as quotations in later writers. This mixture was later referred to by Machiavelli in his description of the ideal characteristics of a ruler. The collection currently contains . The Athenian politician Aristion had himself elected as strategos epi ton hoplon and established a tyranny over the city. Biography Roman military commander and dictator of the Roman republic (81-80 BC). However, in some cases, paintings are considered secondary sources. [68] Shortly after Sulla's election, probably in the last weeks of the year, Sulla married his daughter to one of his colleague Pompeius Rufus' sons. Lucius other name: Sulla Details individual; military/naval; official; Roman; Male. Research Process and Acumen: Experience with primary sources can support future academic success. Killing Cluentius before the city's walls, Sulla then invested the town and for his efforts was awarded a grass crown, the highest Roman military honour. Contact: Research Help Desk, University Library Colorado State University-Pueblo 2200 Bonforte Blvd. Identifying and locating primary sources can be challenging. [24] Keaveney 2005, pp. The two primary sources for this paper are Sallust's This prophecy was to have a powerful hold on Sulla throughout his lifetime. Primary Source Terms:. [102] According to the ancient sources, Archelaus commanded between 60,000 and 120,000 men;[103] in the aftermath, he allegedly escaped with only 10,000. Primary sources provide raw information and first-hand evidence. [81.3] Magnesia, the only city in Asia that remained loyal, was defended against Mithridates with the greatest courage. His colleague was, 79 BC: Retires from political life, refusing the, 78 BC: Dies, perhaps of an intestinal ulcer, with funeral held in Rome, This page was last edited on 2 March 2023, at 11:05. [13][14][15] Sulla's family thereafter did not reach the highest offices of the state until Sulla himself. After one of the other legates was killed by his men, Sulla refused to discipline them except by issuing a proclamation imploring them to show more courage against the enemy. Even those whom Sulla had quarrelled with (including Publius Cornelius Cethegus, whom Sulla had outlawed in 88 BC) defected to join his side. Guide. Sulla was born in a very turbulent era of Rome's history, which has often been described as the beginning of the fall of the Roman Republic.The political climate was marked by civil discord and rampant political violence where voting in the Assembly was . [105] Sulla moved to intercept Flaccus' army in Thessaly, but turned around when Pontic forces reoccupied Boetia. Sulla had total control of the city and Republic of Rome, except for Hispania (which Marius' general Quintus Sertorius had established as an independent state). Despite initial difficulties, Sulla was successful with minimal resources and preparation; with few Roman troops, he hastily levied allied soldiers and advanced quickly into rugged terrain before routing superior enemy forces. Also useful for understanding Sulla's career are the article by E. Baddian . [citation needed]. [93] News of these conquests reached Rome in the autumn of 89BC, leading the Senate and people to declare war; actual preparations for war were, however, delayed: after Sulla was given the command, it took him some eighteen months to organise five legions before setting off; Rome was also severely strained financially. [43] Refusing to stand for an aedileship (which, due to its involvement in hosting public games, was extremely expensive), Sulla became a candidate for the praetorship in 99BC. "[147] Plutarch claims he had seen Sulla's personal motto carved on his tomb on the Campus Martius. Cicero comments that Pompey once said, "If Sulla could, why can't I? [56] When the pro-Italian plebeian tribune Marcus Livius Drusus was assassinated in 91BC while trying again to pass a bill extending Roman citizenship, the Italians revolted. In, Constitutional reforms of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic, L. Cornelius (392) L. f. P. n. Sulla Felix ('Epaphroditus'), Digital Prosopography of the Roman Republic, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sulla&oldid=1142439185. With Mithridates' armies in Europe almost entirely destroyed, Archelaus and Sulla negotiated a set of relatively cordial peace terms which were then forwarded to Mithridates. [123], After the younger Marius' defeat, Sulla had the Samnite war captives massacred, which triggered an uprising in his rear. No action was taken against the troops nor action taken to relieve Pompey Strabo of command. Primary sources enable students to explore the documentary evidence of a nation's history - the roots of its government, value systems and role on the world stage. Sulla also codified, and thus established definitively, the cursus honorum, which required an individual to reach a certain age and level of experience before running for any particular office. In a dispute over the command of the war against Mithridates, initially awarded to Sulla by the Senate, but withdrawn as a result of Marius' intrigues, Sulla marched on Rome in an unprecedented act and defeated Marian forces in battle. [146] An epitaph, which Sulla composed himself, was inscribed onto the tomb, reading, "No friend ever served me, and no enemy ever wronged me, whom I have not repaid in full. Primary sources are contrasted with secondary sources, works that provide analysis, commentary, or criticism on the primary source. The Roman general and dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla (138-78 B.C.) As this caused a general murmur, he let one day pass, and then proscribed 220 more, and again on the third day as many. [27], When Marius took over the war, he entrusted Sulla to organise cavalry forces in Italy needed to pursue the mobile Numidians into the desert. Finally, in a demonstration of his absolute power, Sulla expanded the Pomerium, the sacred boundary of Rome, unchanged since the time of the kings. A primary source (also called original . You may copy and distribute the translations and commentaries in this resource, or parts of such translations and commentaries, in any medium . Historian Suetonius records that when agreeing to spare Caesar, Sulla warned those who were pleading his case that he would become a danger to them in the future, saying, "In this Caesar, there are many Mariuses. [67], Sulla's election to the consulship, successful likely due to his military success in 89BC, was not uncontested. Studying the past supports good citizenship, which is requisite for a fair and effective democracy. After the battle, Marius withdrew to Praeneste and was there besieged. He attempted to mitigate this by passing laws to limit the actions of generals in their provinces, and although these laws remained in effect well into the imperial period, they did not prevent determined generals, such as Pompey and Julius Caesar, from using their armies for personal ambition against the Senate, a danger of which Sulla was intimately aware. He could acknowledge the law as valid. [22] His first wife was called either Ilia or Julia. After another attempt to relieve Praeneste failed, Carbo lost his nerve and attempted to retreat to Africa; his lieutenants attempted again to relieve Praeneste but after that again failed, marched on Rome to force Sulla from his well-defended positions. [21] Regardless, by the standards of the Roman political class, Sulla was a very poor man. [117] Sulla attempted to open negotiations with Norbanus, who was at Capua, but Norbanus refused to treat and withdrew to Praeneste as Sulla advanced. The Romans neutralised a Pontic charge of scythed chariots before pushing the Pontic phalanx back across the plain. Plutarch states in his Life of Sulla that he retired to a life spent in dissolute luxuries, and he "consorted with actresses, harpists, and theatrical people, drinking with them on couches all day long." el paso times obituaries 2021, harris wofford joint service award, why is military banning covid survivors,